First-Line Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers
Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in preparing and serving food.
Sample of reported job titles: Cafeteria Manager, Dietary Supervisor, Food and Nutrition Services Supervisor, Food Production Supervisor, Food Service Director, Food Service Manager, Food Service Supervisor, Kitchen Manager, Kitchen Supervisor
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Tasks | Technology Skills | Tools Used | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Perform various financial activities, such as cash handling, deposit preparation, and payroll.
- Resolve customer complaints regarding food service.
- Compile and balance cash receipts at the end of the day or shift.
- Present bills and accept payments.
- Inspect supplies, equipment, and work areas to ensure efficient service and conformance to standards.
- Perform food preparation and serving duties, such as carving meat, preparing flambe dishes, or serving wine and liquor.
- Train workers in food preparation, and in service, sanitation, and safety procedures.
- Supervise and participate in kitchen and dining area cleaning activities.
- Perform personnel actions, such as hiring and firing staff, providing employee orientation and training, and conducting supervisory activities, such as creating work schedules or organizing employee time sheets.
- Control inventories of food, equipment, smallware, and liquor, and report shortages to designated personnel.
- Assign duties, responsibilities, and work stations to employees in accordance with work requirements.
- Specify food portions and courses, production and time sequences, and workstation and equipment arrangements.
- Record production, operational, and personnel data on specified forms.
- Observe and evaluate workers and work procedures to ensure quality standards and service, and complete disciplinary write-ups.
- Estimate ingredients and supplies required to prepare a recipe.
- Analyze operational problems, such as theft and wastage, and establish procedures to alleviate these problems.
- Forecast staff, equipment, and supply requirements, based on a master menu.
- Recommend measures for improving work procedures and worker performance to increase service quality and enhance job safety.
- Develop equipment maintenance schedules and arrange for repairs.
- Greet and seat guests, and present menus and wine lists.
- Purchase or requisition supplies and equipment needed to ensure quality and timely delivery of services.
- Develop departmental objectives, budgets, policies, procedures, and strategies.
- Conduct meetings and collaborate with other personnel for menu planning, serving arrangements, and related details.
- Evaluate new products for usefulness and suitability.
- Schedule parties and take reservations.
- Assess nutritional needs of patients, plan special menus, supervise the assembly of regular and special diet trays, and oversee the delivery of food trolleys to hospital patients.
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- Accounting software — Compeat Restaurant Accounting Systems; CostGuard; Sage 50 Accounting
- Calendar and scheduling software — Staff scheduling software
- Communications server software — IBM Domino
- Computer based training software — Quizlet
- Data base user interface and query software — CaterPro; CBORD Foodservice Suite; Data entry software
- Desktop publishing software — Microsoft Publisher
- Electronic mail software — Microsoft Outlook
- Enterprise resource planning ERP software — Microsoft Dynamics
- Financial analysis software — Delphi Technology
- Human resources software — ADP Workforce Now ; SoftCafe ScheduleWriter
- Inventory management software — CBORD Group Menu Management System; Regnow Chrysanth Inventory Manager
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office
- Point of sale POS software — Intuit QuickBooks Point of Sale; NCR Advanced Checkout Solution; NCR NeighborhoodPOS; ParTech PixelPoint POS (see all 8 examples)
- Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
- Procurement software — Ordering and purchasing software
- Project management software — Microsoft Project
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel ; Restaurant Operations & Management Spreadsheet Library
- Word processing software — Evernote; Microsoft Word
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
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- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
- Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
- Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
- Administrative — Knowledge of administrative and office procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and workplace terminology.
- Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
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- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others’ actions.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
- Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others’ reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
- Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
- Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
- Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
- Time Management — Managing one’s own time and the time of others.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
- Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
- Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
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- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
- Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
- Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
- Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
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- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Materials — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling materials.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
- Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
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Detailed Work Activities
- Manage food service operations or parts of operations.
- Balance receipts.
- Communicate with customers to resolve complaints or ensure satisfaction.
- Process customer bills or payments.
- Cut cooked or raw foods.
- Inspect facilities, equipment or supplies to ensure conformance to standards.
- Prepare foods for cooking or serving.
- Train food preparation or food service personnel.
- Clean food preparation areas, facilities, or equipment.
- Assist customers with seating arrangements.
- Present food or beverage information or menus to customers.
- Perform human resources activities.
- Coordinate activities of food service staff.
- Maintain food, beverage, or equipment inventories.
- Coordinate timing of food production activities.
- Monitor food services operations to ensure procedures are followed.
- Record operational or production data.
- Estimate supplies, ingredients, or staff requirements for food preparation activities.
- Order materials, supplies, or equipment.
- Schedule equipment maintenance.
- Plan menu options.
- Evaluate quality of materials or products.
- Schedule dining reservations.
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- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 99% responded “Every day.”
- Contact With Others — 85% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Physical Proximity — 82% responded “Very close (near touching).”
- Deal With External Customers — 79% responded “Extremely important.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 71% responded “Extremely important.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 74% responded “Every day.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 60% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Spend Time Standing — 59% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 71% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 64% responded “Extremely important.”
- Responsible for Others’ Health and Safety — 51% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 57% responded “Very important results.”
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 81% responded “Every day.”
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 54% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 75% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 63% responded “Very important.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 55% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Telephone — 44% responded “Every day.”
- Time Pressure — 43% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Walking and Running — 44% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 42% responded “Some freedom.”
- Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — 45% responded “Every day.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 37% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 37% responded “More than half the time.”
- Electronic Mail — 43% responded “Every day.”
- Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — 57% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 34% responded “Extremely important.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 42% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Letters and Memos — 51% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Level of Competition — 42% responded “Moderately competitive.”
- Consequence of Error — 35% responded “Extremely serious.”
- Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — 37% responded “More than half the time.”
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|Title||Job Zone Two: Some Preparation Needed|
|Education||These occupations usually require a high school diploma.|
|Related Experience||Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is usually needed. For example, a teller would benefit from experience working directly with the public.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others. Examples include orderlies, counter and rental clerks, customer service representatives, security guards, upholsterers, and tellers.|
|SVP Range||(4.0 to < 6.0)|
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Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
|44||High school diploma or equivalent
|37||Less than high school diploma|
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Interest code: ECR Want to discover your interests? Take the O*NET Interest Profiler at My Next Move.
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
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- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others’ needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Independence — Job requires developing one’s own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
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- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
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Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2020)||$16.62 hourly, $34,570 annual|
|Employment (2020)||915,400 employees|
|Projected growth (2020-2030)||Much faster than average (15% or higher)|
|Projected job openings (2020-2030)||167,200|
|Top industries (2020)||
Accommodation and Food Services
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2020 wage data and 2020-2030 employment projections . “Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2020-2030). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.
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Job Openings on the Web
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Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
- American Culinary Federation
- Association of Nutrition and Foodservice Professionals
- International Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education
- National Education Association
- National Restaurant Association
- School Nutrition Association
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