Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers
Study the composition, structure, and other physical aspects of the Earth. May use geological, physics, and mathematics knowledge in exploration for oil, gas, minerals, or underground water; or in waste disposal, land reclamation, or other environmental problems. May study the Earth’s internal composition, atmospheres, and oceans, and its magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces. Includes mineralogists, paleontologists, stratigraphers, geodesists, and seismologists.
Sample of reported job titles: Engineering Geologist, Environmental Protection Geologist, Exploration Geologist, Geological Specialist, Geologist, Geophysicist, Geoscientist, Hydrogeologist, Mine Geologist, Project Geologist
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Tasks | Technology Skills | Tools Used | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Plan or conduct geological, geochemical, or geophysical field studies or surveys, sample collection, or drilling and testing programs used to collect data for research or application.
- Analyze and interpret geological data, using computer software.
- Investigate the composition, structure, or history of the Earth’s crust through the collection, examination, measurement, or classification of soils, minerals, rocks, or fossil remains.
- Analyze and interpret geological, geochemical, or geophysical information from sources, such as survey data, well logs, bore holes, or aerial photos.
- Identify risks for natural disasters, such as mudslides, earthquakes, or volcanic eruptions.
- Prepare geological maps, cross-sectional diagrams, charts, or reports concerning mineral extraction, land use, or resource management, using results of fieldwork or laboratory research.
- Communicate geological findings by writing research papers, participating in conferences, or teaching geological science at universities.
- Locate and estimate probable natural gas, oil, or mineral ore deposits or underground water resources, using aerial photographs, charts, or research or survey results.
- Advise construction firms or government agencies on dam or road construction, foundation design, land use, or resource management.
- Measure characteristics of the Earth, such as gravity or magnetic fields, using equipment such as seismographs, gravimeters, torsion balances, or magnetometers.
- Locate and review research articles or environmental, historical, or technical reports.
- Conduct geological or geophysical studies to provide information for use in regional development, site selection, or development of public works projects.
- Review environmental, historical, or technical reports and publications for accuracy.
- Assess ground or surface water movement to provide advice on issues, such as waste management, route and site selection, or the restoration of contaminated sites.
- Inspect construction projects to analyze engineering problems, using test equipment or drilling machinery.
- Provide advice on the safe siting of new nuclear reactor projects or methods of nuclear waste management.
- Design geological mine maps, monitor mine structural integrity, or advise and monitor mining crews.
- Review work plans to determine the effectiveness of activities for mitigating soil or groundwater contamination.
- Test industrial diamonds or abrasives, soil, or rocks to determine their geological characteristics, using optical, x-ray, heat, acid, or precision instruments.
- Study historical climate change indicators found in locations, such as ice sheets or rock formations to develop climate change models.
- Develop strategies for more environmentally friendly resource extraction and reclamation.
- Identify deposits of construction materials suitable for use as concrete aggregates, road fill, or other applications.
- Identify new sources of platinum group elements for industrial applications, such as automotive fuel cells or pollution abatement systems.
- Locate potential sources of geothermal energy.
- Research ways to reduce the ecological footprint of increasingly prevalent megacities.
- Collaborate with medical or health researchers to address health problems related to geological materials or processes.
- Determine ways to mitigate the negative consequences of mineral dust dispersion.
- Identify possible sites for carbon sequestration projects.
- Develop ways to capture or use gases burned off as waste during oil production processes.
- Research geomechanical or geochemical processes to be used in carbon sequestration projects.
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- Analytical or scientific software — EarthWorks Downhole Explorer; Gemcom Surpac; RockWare Geochemist’s Workbench GWB; The MathWorks MATLAB (see all 84 examples)
- Computer aided design CAD software — Atoll GeoCAD; Evolution Computing EasyCAD; MineSight; Trimble Terramodel (see all 12 examples)
- Data base user interface and query software — EarthSoft EQuIS Geology; GeoPLUS Petra; Geosoft DAP server; Microsoft Access (see all 7 examples)
- Data conversion software — BOSS Didger
- Document management software — Adobe Systems Adobe Acrobat ; MHC Document Express
- Electronic mail software — Email software; Microsoft Outlook
- File versioning software — Git
- Geographic information system — ESRI ArcGIS software ; ESRI ArcView; Geographic information system GIS software ; RockWare RockWorks (see all 6 examples)
- Graphics or photo imaging software — ACD Systems Canvas; Adobe Systems Adobe Photoshop ; Golden Software Surfer (graphics or photo imaging feature)
- Internet browser software
- Map creation software — Geomechanical design analysis GDA software; Geosoft Oasis montaj; Mapping software; SACLANTCEN (see all 14 examples)
- Object or component oriented development software — Python
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office ; OpenOffice.org
- Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
- Project management software — Microsoft Project
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Web platform development software — Microsoft Active Server Pages ASP
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
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- Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
- Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub-atomic structures and processes.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
- Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
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- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
- Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
- Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others’ actions.
- Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others’ reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
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- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
- Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
- Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
- Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
- Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
- Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
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- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Providing Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
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Detailed Work Activities
- Interpret research or operational data.
- Analyze geological or geographical data.
- Conduct research to gain information about products or processes.
- Design research studies to obtain scientific information.
- Research geological features or processes.
- Prepare maps.
- Measure environmental characteristics.
- Analyze environmental data.
- Communicate results of environmental research.
- Instruct college students in physical or life sciences.
- Prepare scientific or technical reports or presentations.
- Inspect work sites to identify potential environmental or safety hazards.
- Monitor construction operations.
- Advise others on management of emergencies or hazardous situations or materials.
- Locate natural resources using geospatial or other environmental data.
- Advise others about environmental management or conservation.
- Review professional literature to maintain professional knowledge.
- Proofread documents, records, or other files to ensure accuracy.
- Review plans or proposals for environmental conservation.
- Analyze geological samples.
- Research hydrologic features or processes.
- Develop plans to manage natural or renewable resources.
- Determine methods to minimize environmental impact of activities.
- Coordinate cross-disciplinary research programs.
- Develop sustainable industrial or development methods.
- Develop software or applications for scientific or technical use.
- Research impacts of environmental conservation initiatives.
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- Electronic Mail — 88% responded “Every day.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 59% responded “Every day.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 69% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 44% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 50% responded “Some freedom.”
- Telephone — 44% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 47% responded “Very important.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 50% responded “Every day.”
- Contact With Others — 44% responded “Contact with others most of the time.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 45% responded “Very important.”
- Spend Time Sitting — 56% responded “More than half the time.”
- Time Pressure — 44% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 38% responded “Important results.”
- Level of Competition — 34% responded “Moderately competitive.”
- Letters and Memos — 39% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 38% responded “Important.”
- Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — 34% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Responsible for Others’ Health and Safety — 34% responded “Moderate responsibility.”
- In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — 38% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
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|Title||Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master’s degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).|
|Related Experience||Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.|
|Job Training||Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.|
|SVP Range||(8.0 and above)|
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Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
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Interest code: IR Want to discover your interests? Take the O*NET Interest Profiler at My Next Move.
- Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
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- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Independence — Job requires developing one’s own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others’ needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
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- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
- Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
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Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2020)||$44.99 hourly, $93,580 annual|
|Employment (2020)||29,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2020-2030)||Average (5% to 10%)|
|Projected job openings (2020-2030)||3,100|
|Top industries (2020)||
Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2020 wage data and 2020-2030 employment projections . “Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2020-2030). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.
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Job Openings on the Web
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Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- American Association of Petroleum Geologists
- American Geophysical Union
- American Geosciences Institute
- American Institute of Professional Geologists
- American Society of Civil Engineers
- Association of Environmental and Engineering Geologists
- Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society
- Marine Technology Society
- Mineralogical Society of America
- National Association of State Boards of Geology
- National Ground Water Association
- Occupational Outlook Handbook: Geoscientists
- Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration
- Society of Economic Geologists
- Society of Exploration Geophysicists
- The Geological Society of America
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