Conduct organizational studies and evaluations, design systems and procedures, conduct work simplification and measurement studies, and prepare operations and procedures manuals to assist management in operating more efficiently and effectively. Includes program analysts and management consultants.
Sample of reported job titles: Administrative Analyst, Business Analyst, Employment Programs Analyst, Management Analyst, Management Consultant, Organizational Development Consultant, Program Management Analyst, Quality Control Analyst
Tasks | Technology Skills | Tools Used | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Document findings of study and prepare recommendations for implementation of new systems, procedures, or organizational changes.
- Interview personnel and conduct on-site observation to ascertain unit functions, work performed, and methods, equipment, and personnel used.
- Analyze data gathered and develop solutions or alternative methods of proceeding.
- Plan study of work problems and procedures, such as organizational change, communications, information flow, integrated production methods, inventory control, or cost analysis.
- Confer with personnel concerned to ensure successful functioning of newly implemented systems or procedures.
- Gather and organize information on problems or procedures.
- Prepare manuals and train workers in use of new forms, reports, procedures or equipment, according to organizational policy.
- Review forms and reports and confer with management and users about format, distribution, and purpose, identifying problems and improvements.
- Develop and implement records management program for filing, protection, and retrieval of records, and assure compliance with program.
- Design, evaluate, recommend, and approve changes of forms and reports.
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- Access software — Citrix
- Accounting software — Fund accounting software; Sage 50 Accounting; Tax software
- Analytical or scientific software — IBM SPSS Statistics ; Minitab ; SAS ; The MathWorks MATLAB (see all 5 examples)
- Application server software — GitHub ; Oracle WebLogic Server ; Red Hat WildFly
- Backup or archival software — Veritas NetBackup
- Business intelligence and data analysis software — Apache Spark ; MicroStrategy ; Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition ; Qlik Tech QlikView (see all 6 examples)
- Cloud-based data access and sharing software — Dropbox; Google Drive ; Microsoft SharePoint
- Cloud-based management software — IBM WebSphere ; Splunk Enterprise
- Communications server software — IBM Domino
- Configuration management software — Chef; Perforce Helix software; Puppet ; VMware
- Content workflow software — Atlassian JIRA
- Customer relationship management CRM software — Blackbaud The Raiser’s Edge; Oracle Eloqua; Salesforce software
- Data base management system software — Apache Hive ; Elasticsearch ; MongoDB ; Oracle PL/SQL (see all 11 examples)
- Data base reporting software — Information Builders WebFOCUS; Microsoft SQL Server Reporting Services ; SAP Crystal Reports
- Data base user interface and query software — Airtable; Blackboard software; Oracle JDBC ; Transact-SQL (see all 14 examples)
- Data mining software — Google Analytics
- Desktop communications software — Eko; Skype
- Desktop publishing software — Adobe Systems Adobe InDesign ; Microsoft Publisher
- Development environment software — Apache Ant ; Apache Kafka ; Common business oriented language COBOL ; Go (see all 17 examples)
- Document management software — Adobe Systems Adobe Acrobat
- Electronic mail software — IBM Notes ; MicroFocus GroupWise; Microsoft Exchange ; Microsoft Outlook
- Enterprise application integration software — Atlassian Bamboo ; Extensible markup language XML ; IBM InfoSphere DataStage; Microsoft SQL Server Integration Services SSIS
- Enterprise resource planning ERP software — Microsoft Dynamics GP ; NetSuite ERP ; Oracle Hyperion ; Oracle JD Edwards EnterpriseOne (see all 14 examples)
- Enterprise system management software — IBM Power Systems software
- Expert system software — Ansible software
- File versioning software — Apache Subversion SVN ; Git
- Financial analysis software — Delphi Technology; Oracle E-Business Suite Financials
- Geographic information system — ESRI ArcGIS software ; Geographic information system GIS software
- Graphical user interface development software — Salesforce Visualforce
- Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Fireworks; Adobe Systems Adobe Flash; SmugMug Flickr ; Trimble SketchUp Pro
- Human resources software — ADP Workforce Now ; Ceridian; Human resource management software HRMS; Oracle Taleo
- Industrial control software — Supervisory control and data acquisition SCADA software
- Information retrieval or search software — LexisNexis
- Internet browser software — Web browser software
- Medical software — Epic Systems ; Healthcare common procedure coding system HCPCS ; Medical condition coding software ; MEDITECH software (see all 5 examples)
- Metadata management software — CA Erwin Data Modeler
- Network conferencing software — Slido
- Network monitoring software — Nagios ; Wireshark
- Network security and virtual private network VPN equipment software — Virtual private networking VPN software
- Object or component oriented development software — Advanced business application programming ABAP ; Apache Groovy ; jQuery ; Scala (see all 13 examples)
- Object oriented data base management software — Hibernate ORM; PostgreSQL
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office
- Operating system software — Bash ; Oracle Solaris ; Red Hat Enterprise Linux ; Shell script (see all 12 examples)
- Portal server software — Apache HTTP Server
- Presentation software — Google Slides; Mentimeter; Microsoft PowerPoint
- Process mapping and design software — Microsoft Visio
- Program testing software — Hewlett Packard LoadRunner; JUnit ; Selenium
- Project management software — Confluence ; Microsoft Project ; Microsoft Teams; Oracle Primavera Enterprise Project Portfolio Management (see all 5 examples)
- Requirements analysis and system architecture software — IBM Rational RequisitePro; Unified modeling language UML
- Sales and marketing software — Marketo Marketing Automation
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Transaction security and virus protection software — McAfee; Symantec
- Transaction server software — Customer information control system CICS
- Video conferencing software — Cisco Systems Webex; Google Meet; LogMeIn GoToMeeting
- Video creation and editing software — Screencastify
- Web page creation and editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe Dreamweaver; LinkedIn
- Web platform development software — Backbone.js ; Google AngularJS ; Microsoft ASP.NET Core MVC ; Spring Framework (see all 22 examples)
- Word processing software — 3M Post-it App; Google Docs ; Microsoft OneNote; Microsoft Word
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
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- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
- Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
- Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
- Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
- Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures, and their history and origins.
- Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking, and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
- Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
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- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others’ reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others’ actions.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
- Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
- Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
- Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
- Time Management — Managing one’s own time and the time of others.
- Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
- Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
- Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
- Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
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- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
- Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
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- Providing Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
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Detailed Work Activities
- Advise others on business or operational matters.
- Prepare research reports.
- Analyze jobs using observation, survey, or interview techniques.
- Analyze business or financial data.
- Confer with personnel to coordinate business operations.
- Gather organizational performance information.
- Develop training materials.
- Train personnel in organizational or compliance procedures.
- Discuss business strategies, practices, or policies with managers.
- Develop business or financial information systems.
Find occupations related to multiple detailed work activities
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- Electronic Mail — 92% responded “Every day.”
- Telephone — 85% responded “Every day.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 81% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 50% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Sitting — 62% responded “More than half the time.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 48% responded “Very important.”
- Contact With Others — 46% responded “Contact with others most of the time.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 46% responded “Some freedom.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 46% responded “Some freedom.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 58% responded “Very important.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 38% responded “Extremely important.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 58% responded “Every day.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 42% responded “Important results.”
- Level of Competition — 38% responded “Highly competitive.”
- Time Pressure — 46% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 36% responded “High responsibility.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 42% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
- Letters and Memos — 42% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 38% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
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|Title||Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master’s degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).|
|Related Experience||Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.|
|Job Training||Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.|
|SVP Range||(8.0 and above)|
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Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
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Interest code: IEC Want to discover your interests? Take the O*NET Interest Profiler at My Next Move.
- Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
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- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Independence — Job requires developing one’s own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others’ needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
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- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
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Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2020)||$42.14 hourly, $87,660 annual|
|Employment (2020)||907,600 employees|
|Projected growth (2020-2030)||Faster than average (10% to 15%)|
|Projected job openings (2020-2030)||99,400|
|Top industries (2020)||
Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2020 wage data and 2020-2030 employment projections . “Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2020-2030). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.
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Job Openings on the Web
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Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Academy of Management
- American Institute of CPAs
- American Society for Public Administration
- Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management
- Association of Management Consulting Firms
- Institute of Management Accountants
- Institute of Management Consultants USA
- International Association of Law Enforcement Planners
- Management Consulting Institute
- Occupational Outlook Handbook: Management analysts
- Project Management Institute
- Society for Human Resource Management
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