Plan, direct, or coordinate marketing policies and programs, such as determining the demand for products and services offered by a firm and its competitors, and identify potential customers. Develop pricing strategies with the goal of maximizing the firm’s profits or share of the market while ensuring the firm’s customers are satisfied. Oversee product development or monitor trends that indicate the need for new products and services.
Sample of reported job titles: Account Supervisor, Brand Manager, Business Development Director, Business Development Manager, Commercial Lines Manager, Market Development Executive, Marketing Coordinator, Marketing Director, Marketing Manager, Product Manager
Tasks | Technology Skills | Tools Used | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Identify, develop, or evaluate marketing strategy, based on knowledge of establishment objectives, market characteristics, and cost and markup factors.
- Formulate, direct, or coordinate marketing activities or policies to promote products or services, working with advertising or promotion managers.
- Evaluate the financial aspects of product development, such as budgets, expenditures, research and development appropriations, or return-on-investment and profit-loss projections.
- Develop pricing strategies, balancing firm objectives and customer satisfaction.
- Compile lists describing product or service offerings.
- Direct the hiring, training, or performance evaluations of marketing or sales staff and oversee their daily activities.
- Consult with product development personnel on product specifications, such as design, color, or packaging.
- Use sales forecasting or strategic planning to ensure the sale and profitability of products, lines, or services, analyzing business developments and monitoring market trends.
- Negotiate contracts with vendors or distributors to manage product distribution, establishing distribution networks or developing distribution strategies.
- Coordinate or participate in promotional activities or trade shows, working with developers, advertisers, or production managers, to market products or services.
- Initiate market research studies, or analyze their findings.
- Confer with legal staff to resolve problems, such as copyright infringement or royalty sharing with outside producers or distributors.
- Consult with buying personnel to gain advice regarding the types of products or services expected to be in demand.
- Consult with buying personnel to gain advice regarding environmentally sound or sustainable products.
- Conduct economic or commercial surveys to identify potential markets for products or services.
- Recommend modifications to products, packaging, production processes, or other characteristics to improve the environmental soundness or sustainability of products.
- Advise business or other groups on local, national, or international factors affecting the buying or selling of products or services.
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- Access software — Citrix
- Accounting software — Fund accounting software; Intuit QuickBooks ; Tax software
- Analytical or scientific software — IBM SPSS Statistics ; Minitab ; SAS ; The MathWorks MATLAB (see all 8 examples)
- Application server software — GitHub
- Business intelligence and data analysis software — IBM Cognos Impromptu ; MicroStrategy ; Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition ; Qlik Tech QlikView (see all 5 examples)
- Cloud-based data access and sharing software — Dropbox; Google Drive ; Microsoft SharePoint ; Slack
- Cloud-based management software — Splunk Enterprise
- Communications server software — IBM Domino
- Computer based training software — Padlet
- Content workflow software — Atlassian JIRA
- Customer relationship management CRM software — Blackbaud The Raiser’s Edge; Oracle Eloqua; QAD Marketing Automation; Salesforce software (see all 9 examples)
- Data base management system software — Apache Hive ; Apache Solr ; Elasticsearch ; Oracle PL/SQL (see all 9 examples)
- Data base reporting software — Database reporting software
- Data base user interface and query software — Airtable; Amazon Redshift ; MySQL ; Yardi software (see all 15 examples)
- Data mining software — Google Analytics
- Desktop communications software — Eko
- Desktop publishing software — Adobe Systems Adobe InDesign ; Microsoft Publisher
- Development environment software — Microsoft Azure ; Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications VBA ; Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition VBScript ; Ruby (see all 7 examples)
- Document management software — Adobe Systems Adobe Acrobat ; Adobe Systems Adobe Reader
- Electronic mail software — IBM Notes ; Microsoft Outlook
- Enterprise application integration software — Extensible markup language XML ; IBM InfoSphere DataStage
- Enterprise resource planning ERP software — Microsoft Dynamics ; NetSuite ERP ; Oracle Hyperion ; Oracle PeopleSoft (see all 8 examples)
- Enterprise system management software — IBM Power Systems software
- Expert system software — Oracle Beehive
- Financial analysis software — Delphi Technology; Oracle E-Business Suite Financials
- Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Creative Cloud ; Adobe Systems Adobe Illustrator ; JamBoard; SmugMug Flickr (see all 7 examples)
- Information retrieval or search software — LexisNexis
- Internet browser software — Web browser software
- Multi-media educational software — Nearpod
- Network conferencing software — LogMeIn GoToWebinar
- Object or component oriented development software — Jupyter Notebook; Python ; R ; Swift
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office
- Operating system software — Apple macOS
- Presentation software — Apple Keynote; Google Slides; Mentimeter; Microsoft PowerPoint
- Process mapping and design software — Microsoft Visio
- Project management software — Confluence ; Microsoft Project ; Microsoft Teams
- Sales and marketing software — Google AdWords ; HubSpot software ; Marketo Marketing Automation
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Transaction security and virus protection software — McAfee; Symantec
- Transaction server software — Armand Morin MultiTrack Generator
- Video conferencing software — Google Meet; LogMeIn GoToMeeting
- Video creation and editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe After Effects ; Flipgrid; Screencastify; YouTube (see all 8 examples)
- Web page creation and editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe Dreamweaver; Facebook ; LinkedIn ; Social media sites
- Web platform development software — Cascading style sheets CSS ; Drupal ; Oracle JavaServer Pages JSP ; Ruby on Rails (see all 10 examples)
- Word processing software — Evernote; Google Docs ; Microsoft Word
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
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- Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
- Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking, and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
- Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
- Administrative — Knowledge of administrative and office procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and workplace terminology.
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- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others’ reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others’ actions.
- Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
- Time Management — Managing one’s own time and the time of others.
- Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
- Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
- Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
- Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
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- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
- Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
- Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
- Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
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- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
- Providing Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
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Detailed Work Activities
- Develop marketing plans or strategies.
- Evaluate program effectiveness.
- Direct sales, marketing, or customer service activities.
- Analyze data to inform operational decisions or activities.
- Estimate cost or material requirements.
- Determine pricing or monetary policies.
- Compile operational data.
- Supervise employees.
- Confer with organizational members to accomplish work activities.
- Analyze market research data.
- Analyze forecasting data to improve business decisions.
- Monitor external affairs or events affecting business operations.
- Negotiate contracts for transportation, distribution, or logistics services.
- Coordinate special events or programs.
- Conduct opinion surveys or needs assessments.
- Develop sustainable organizational policies or practices.
- Recommend organizational process or policy changes.
- Advise others on business or operational matters.
- Develop marketing plans or strategies for environmental initiatives.
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- Electronic Mail — 100% responded “Every day.”
- Telephone — 92% responded “Every day.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 79% responded “Every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 70% responded “Extremely important.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 64% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Contact With Others — 69% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 81% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 80% responded “Every day.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 49% responded “Some freedom.”
- Spend Time Sitting — 52% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 51% responded “Extremely important.”
- Deal With External Customers — 49% responded “Extremely important.”
- Time Pressure — 55% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 41% responded “Very important results.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 42% responded “Every day.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 44% responded “High responsibility.”
- Level of Competition — 44% responded “Extremely competitive.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 57% responded “Very important.”
- Letters and Memos — 41% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Public Speaking — 54% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 34% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
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|Title||Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor’s degree, but some do not.|
|Related Experience||A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.|
|Job Zone Examples||Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include real estate brokers, sales managers, database administrators, graphic designers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.|
|SVP Range||(7.0 to < 8.0)|
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Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
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Interest code: EC Want to discover your interests? Take the O*NET Interest Profiler at My Next Move.
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
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- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
- Independence — Job requires developing one’s own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others’ needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
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- Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
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Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2020)||$68.35 hourly, $142,170 annual|
|Employment (2020)||293,700 employees|
|Projected growth (2020-2030)||Faster than average (10% to 15%)|
|Projected job openings (2020-2030)||28,500|
|Top industries (2020)||
Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Management of Companies and Enterprises
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2020 wage data and 2020-2030 employment projections . “Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2020-2030). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.
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Job Openings on the Web
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Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- American Association of Advertising Agencies
- American Marketing Association
- Association of Sales and Marketing Companies
- Business Marketing Association
- Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association International
- Insights Association
- Occupational Outlook Handbook: Advertising, promotions, and marketing managers
- Product Development and Management Association
- Public Relations Society of America
- Sales and Marketing Executives International
- Self-Insurance Institute of America
- Society for Healthcare Strategy and Market Development of the American Hospital Association
- Society for Marketing Professional Services
- The Institute of Internal Auditors
- Urban Land Institute
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This page includes information from O*NET OnLine by the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration (USDOL/ETA). Used under the CC BY 4.0 license. O*NET® is a trademark of USDOL/ETA.