Producers and Directors
Produce or direct stage, television, radio, video, or film productions for entertainment, information, or instruction. Responsible for creative decisions, such as interpretation of script, choice of actors or guests, set design, sound, special effects, and choreography.
Sample of reported job titles: Artistic Director, Director, Executive Producer, News Producer, Newscast Producer, Producer, Radio Producer, Technical Director, Television News Producer, Television Producer (TV Producer)
Also see: Media Programming Directors, Talent Directors, Media Technical Directors/Managers
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Tasks | Technology Skills | Tools Used | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Related Occupations | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Write and edit news stories from information collected by reporters and other sources.
- Plan details such as framing, composition, camera movement, sound, and actor movement for each shot or scene.
- Communicate to actors the approach, characterization, and movement needed for each scene in such a way that rehearsals and takes are minimized.
- Direct live broadcasts, films and recordings, or non-broadcast programming for public entertainment or education.
- Coordinate the activities of writers, directors, managers, and other personnel throughout the production process.
- Study and research scripts to determine how they should be directed.
- Supervise and coordinate the work of camera, lighting, design, and sound crew members.
- Confer with technical directors, managers, crew members, and writers to discuss details of production, such as photography, script, music, sets, and costumes.
- Research production topics using the internet, video archives, and other informational sources.
- Review film, recordings, or rehearsals to ensure conformance to production and broadcast standards.
- Consult with writers, producers, or actors about script changes or “workshop” scripts, through rehearsal with writers and actors to create final drafts.
- Identify and approve equipment and elements required for productions, such as scenery, lights, props, costumes, choreography, and music.
- Establish pace of programs and sequences of scenes according to time requirements and cast and set accessibility.
- Conduct meetings with staff to discuss production progress and to ensure production objectives are attained.
- Compile scripts, program notes, and other material related to productions.
- Perform administrative duties, such as preparing operational reports, distributing rehearsal call sheets and script copies, and arranging for rehearsal quarters.
- Resolve personnel problems that arise during the production process by acting as liaisons between dissenting parties when necessary.
- Arrange financing for productions.
- Perform management activities, such as budgeting, scheduling, planning, and marketing.
- Compose and edit scripts or provide screenwriters with story outlines from which scripts can be written.
- Negotiate with parties, including independent producers and the distributors and broadcasters who will be handling completed productions.
- Cut and edit film or tape to integrate component parts into desired sequences.
- Choose settings and locations for films and determine how scenes will be shot in these settings.
- Review film daily to check on work in progress and to plan for future filming.
- Obtain rights to scripts or to such items as existing video footage.
- Write and submit proposals to bid on contracts for projects.
- Develop marketing plans for finished products, collaborating with sales associates to supervise product distribution.
- Hire principal cast members and crew members, such as art directors, cinematographers, and costume designers.
- Hold auditions for parts or negotiate contracts with actors determined suitable for specific roles.
- Select plays, scripts, books, news content, or ideas to be produced.
Find occupations related to multiple tasks
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- Cloud-based data access and sharing software — Google Drive
- Data base user interface and query software — Airtable
- Data mining software — Google Analytics
- Desktop communications software — Eko
- Desktop publishing software — Adobe Systems Adobe InDesign ; Microsoft Publisher
- Development environment software — Adobe Systems Adobe ActionScript; Adobe Systems Adobe Creative Suite
- Document management software — Adobe Systems Adobe Acrobat
- Electronic mail software — Email software; Microsoft Outlook
- Enterprise application integration software — Extensible markup language XML
- Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Creative Cloud ; Adobe Systems Adobe Flash; Adobe Systems Adobe Illustrator ; Adobe Systems Adobe Photoshop (see all 6 examples)
- Instant messaging software — Twitter
- Music or sound editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe Audition; Avid Technology Pro Tools; MAGIX Software Sound Forge; Sony Vegas Pro (see all 5 examples)
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office
- Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint
- Process mapping and design software — Microsoft Visio
- Project management software — Microsoft Project
- Sales and marketing software — Google AdWords
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Video conferencing software — FaceTime
- Video creation and editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe After Effects ; Apple Final Cut Pro; Screencastify; YouTube (see all 12 examples)
- Web page creation and editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe Dreamweaver; Facebook ; LinkedIn ; Social media sites (see all 7 examples)
- Web platform development software — Cascading style sheets CSS ; Drupal ; Hypertext markup language HTML ; PHP (see all 5 examples)
- Word processing software — Google Docs ; Microsoft Word ; Scripting software
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
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- Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
- Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
- Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
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- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others’ actions.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
- Time Management — Managing one’s own time and the time of others.
- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others’ reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
- Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
- Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
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- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
- Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
- Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
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- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
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Detailed Work Activities
- Edit written materials.
- Write informational material.
- Determine technical requirements of productions or projects.
- Coordinate artistic activities.
- Direct productions or performances.
- Direct fundraising or financing activities.
- Coordinate activities of production personnel.
- Study scripts to determine project requirements.
- Collaborate with others to determine technical details of productions.
- Manage operations of artistic or entertainment departments or organizations.
- Manage content of broadcasts or presentations.
- Conduct research to inform art, designs, or other work.
- Write material for artistic or entertainment purposes.
- Collaborate with others to prepare or perform artistic productions.
- Select materials or props.
- Negotiate for services.
- Discuss production content and progress with others.
- Edit audio or video recordings.
- Determine presentation subjects or content.
- Compile technical information or documentation.
- Obtain copyrights or other legal permissions.
- Develop proposals for current or prospective customers.
- Coordinate logistics for productions or events.
- Develop promotional strategies or plans.
- Audition or interview potential performers or staff members.
- Select staff, team members, or performers.
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- Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
- Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
- Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
- Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
- Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
- Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
- Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
- Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — What results do your decisions usually have on other people or the image or reputation or financial resources of your employer?
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
- Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
- Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
- Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
- Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?
- Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?
- Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
- Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
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|Title||Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor’s degree, but some do not.|
|Related Experience||A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.|
|Job Zone Examples||Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include real estate brokers, sales managers, database administrators, graphic designers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.|
|SVP Range||(7.0 to < 8.0)|
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Interest code: EAS Want to discover your interests? Take the O*NET Interest Profiler at My Next Move.
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
- Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
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- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others’ needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Independence — Job requires developing one’s own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
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- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
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Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2020)||$36.73 hourly, $76,400 annual|
|Employment (2020)||131,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2020-2030)||Much faster than average (15% or higher)|
|Projected job openings (2020-2030)||15,600|
|Top industries (2020)||
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2020 wage data and 2020-2030 employment projections . “Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2020-2030). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.
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Job Openings on the Web
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Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- Actors’ Equity Association
- Alliance of Motion Picture and Television Producers
- American Advertising Federation
- Communications Workers of America
- Directors Guild of America
- International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
- International Motor Press Association
- National Association of Broadcast Employees and Technicians – Communications Workers of America
- National Association of Broadcasters
- National Association of Hispanic Journalists
- National Association of Schools of Theatre
- Occupational Outlook Handbook: Producers and directors
- Producers Guild of America
- Radio Television Digital News Association
- Screen Actors Guild – American Federation of Television and Radio Artists
- Society of Professional Journalists
- Stage Directors and Choreographers Society
- The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers
- The Association for Women in Communications
- The National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences
- Theatre Communications Group
- Theatre for Young Audiences/USA
- Writers Guild of America East
- Writers Guild of America West
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