Diagnose and treat diseases and injuries using medical imaging techniques, such as x rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine, and ultrasounds. May perform minimally invasive medical procedures and tests.
Sample of reported job titles: Diagnostic Radiologist, Interventional Neuroradiologist, Interventional Radiologist, Neuroradiologist, Nuclear Medicine Physician, Nuclear Medicine Specialist, Physician, Radiologist
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Tasks | Technology Skills | Tools Used | Knowledge | Skills | Abilities | Work Activities | Detailed Work Activities | Work Context | Job Zone | Education | Credentials | Interests | Work Styles | Work Values | Wages & Employment | Job Openings | Additional Information
- Obtain patients’ histories from electronic records, patient interviews, dictated reports, or by communicating with referring clinicians.
- Prepare comprehensive interpretive reports of findings.
- Perform or interpret the outcomes of diagnostic imaging procedures including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computer tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), nuclear cardiology treadmill studies, mammography, or ultrasound.
- Review or transmit images and information using picture archiving or communications systems.
- Communicate examination results or diagnostic information to referring physicians, patients, or families.
- Provide counseling to radiologic patients to explain the processes, risks, benefits, or alternative treatments.
- Instruct radiologic staff in desired techniques, positions, or projections.
- Confer with medical professionals regarding image-based diagnoses.
- Coordinate radiological services with other medical activities.
- Document the performance, interpretation, or outcomes of all procedures performed.
- Establish or enforce standards for protection of patients or personnel.
- Develop or monitor procedures to ensure adequate quality control of images.
- Recognize or treat complications during and after procedures, including blood pressure problems, pain, oversedation, or bleeding.
- Participate in continuing education activities to maintain and develop expertise.
- Participate in quality improvement activities including discussions of areas where risk of error is high.
- Perform interventional procedures such as image-guided biopsy, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, transhepatic biliary drainage, or nephrostomy catheter placement.
- Develop treatment plans for radiology patients.
- Administer radioisotopes to clinical patients or research subjects.
- Advise other physicians of the clinical indications, limitations, assessments, or risks of diagnostic and therapeutic applications of radioactive materials.
- Calculate, measure, or prepare radioisotope dosages.
- Check and approve the quality of diagnostic images before patients are discharged.
- Compare nuclear medicine procedures with other types of procedures, such as computed tomography, ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, and angiography.
- Direct nuclear medicine technologists or technicians regarding desired dosages, techniques, positions, and projections.
- Establish and enforce radiation protection standards for patients and staff.
- Formulate plans and procedures for nuclear medicine departments.
- Monitor handling of radioactive materials to ensure that established procedures are followed.
- Prescribe radionuclides and dosages to be administered to individual patients.
- Review procedure requests and patients’ medical histories to determine applicability of procedures and radioisotopes to be used.
- Teach nuclear medicine, diagnostic radiology, or other specialties at graduate educational level.
- Test dosage evaluation instruments and survey meters to ensure they are operating properly.
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- Calendar and scheduling software — Scheduling software
- Electronic mail software — Email software
- Graphics or photo imaging software — Digital image processing software
- Internet browser software — Web browser software
- Medical software — Bizmatics PrognoCIS EMR; GE Healthcare Centricity EMR; MEDITECH software ; Vitera Healthcare Solutions Vitera Intergy RIS (see all 50 examples)
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
- Voice recognition software
- Word processing software — Microsoft Word
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
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- Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
- Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
- Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub-atomic structures and processes.
- Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
- Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
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- Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
- Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
- Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others’ reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
- Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
- Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
- Time Management — Managing one’s own time and the time of others.
- Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
- Operations Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
- Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
- Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others’ actions.
- Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
- Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
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- Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
- Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
- Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
- Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
- Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
- Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
- Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
- Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
- Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
- Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
- Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
- Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
- Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
- Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
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- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
- Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
- Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
- Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
- Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
- Providing Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
- Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Materials — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
- Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
- Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
- Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
- Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
- Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
- Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
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Detailed Work Activities
- Analyze test data or images to inform diagnosis or treatment.
- Collect medical information from patients, family members, or other medical professionals.
- Gather medical information from patient histories.
- Operate diagnostic imaging equipment.
- Prepare reports summarizing patient diagnostic or care activities.
- Communicate detailed medical information to patients or family members.
- Communicate test or assessment results to medical professionals.
- Send information, materials or documentation.
- Explain medical procedures or test results to patients or family members.
- Operate on patients to treat conditions.
- Train medical providers.
- Inform medical professionals regarding patient conditions and care.
- Collaborate with healthcare professionals to plan or provide treatment.
- Record patient medical histories.
- Determine protocols for medical procedures.
- Verify that medical activities or operations meet standards.
- Develop healthcare quality and safety procedures.
- Monitor patients following surgeries or other treatments.
- Maintain medical or professional knowledge.
- Develop medical treatment plans.
- Administer medical substances for imaging or other procedures.
- Advise medical personnel regarding healthcare issues.
- Calculate numerical data for medical activities.
- Check quality of diagnostic images.
- Evaluate treatment options to guide medical decisions.
- Examine medical instruments or equipment to ensure proper operation.
- Manage healthcare operations.
- Monitor the handling of hazardous materials or medical wastes.
- Prepare medications or medical solutions.
- Prescribe medications.
- Supervise patient care personnel.
- Verify accuracy of patient information.
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- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 99% responded “Extremely important.”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 99% responded “Every day.”
- Telephone — 96% responded “Every day.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 91% responded “Very important results.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 91% responded “Every day.”
- Time Pressure — 80% responded “Every day.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 74% responded “A lot of freedom.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 60% responded “Every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 29% responded “Very important.”
- Electronic Mail — 71% responded “Every day.”
- Exposed to Radiation
- Responsible for Others’ Health and Safety — 60% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Exposed to Disease or Infections — 70% responded “Every day.”
- Level of Competition — 57% responded “Extremely competitive.”
- Consequence of Error — 66% responded “Extremely serious.”
- Contact With Others — 54% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 43% responded “Extremely important.”
- Duration of Typical Work Week — 67% responded “More than 40 hours.”
- Structured versus Unstructured Work — 65% responded “Some freedom.”
- Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — 39% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 43% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Spend Time Sitting — 36% responded “More than half the time.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 45% responded “Very important.”
- Deal With External Customers — 59% responded “Very important.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 48% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Physical Proximity — 29% responded “Very close (near touching).”
- Frequency of Conflict Situations — 48% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Letters and Memos — 37% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 21% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 12% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
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|Title||Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master’s degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).|
|Related Experience||Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.|
|Job Training||Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.|
|SVP Range||(8.0 and above)|
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Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
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Interest code: IRS Want to discover your interests? Take the O*NET Interest Profiler at My Next Move.
- Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
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- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others’ needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Independence — Job requires developing one’s own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
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- Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
- Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
- Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
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Wages & Employment Trends
Median wage data for Physicians, All Other; and Ophthalmologists, Except Pediatric.
Employment data for Physicians, All Other; and Ophthalmologists, Except Pediatric.
Industry data for Physicians, All Other; and Ophthalmologists, Except Pediatric.
|Median wages (2020)||$100.00+ hourly, $208,000+ annual|
|Employment (2020)||412,100 employees|
|Projected growth (2020-2030)||Slower than average (1% to 5%)|
|Projected job openings (2020-2030)||13,400|
|Top industries (2020)||
Health Care and Social Assistance
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2020 wage data and 2020-2030 employment projections . “Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2020-2030). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.
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Job Openings on the Web
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Sources of Additional Information
Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.
- American Academy of Family Physicians
- American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine
- American Board of Physician Specialties
- American College of Cardiology
- American College of Nuclear Medicine
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
- American College of Physicians
- American College of Radiology
- American College of Surgeons
- American Medical Association
- American Osteopathic Association
- American Roentgen Ray Society
- American Society of Head and Neck Radiology
- American Society of Neuroradiology
- American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
- American Society of Radiologic Technologists
- Association of American Medical Colleges
- Federation of State Medical Boards
- Occupational Outlook Handbook: Physicians and surgeons
- Radiological Society of North America
- Society of Abdominal Radiology
- Society of Interventional Radiology
- Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
- Society of Skeletal Radiology
- The American Board of Nuclear Medicine
- The American Registry of Radiologic Technologists
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