CACI 3065 Sexual Harassment in Defined Relationship—Essential Factual Elements (Civ. Code, § 51.9)

California Civil Jury Instructions CACI

3065 Sexual Harassment in Defined Relationship—Essential Factual Elements (Civ. Code, § 51.9)

[Name of plaintiff] claims that [name of defendant] sexually harassed [him/her/nonbinary pronoun]. To establish this claim, [name of plaintiff] must prove all of the following:

1.[That [name of plaintiff] had a [business/service/ [or] professional] relationship with [name of defendant];]


[That [name of defendant] held [himself/herself/nonbinary pronoun] out as being able to help [name of plaintiff] establish a [business/service/ [or] professional] relationship with [[name of defendant]/[or] [name of third party]];]

2.[That [name of defendant] made [sexual advances/solicitations/sexual requests/demands for sexual compliance/[insert other actionable conduct]] to [name of plaintiff];]


[That [name of defendant] engaged in [verbal/visual/physical] conduct of a [sexual nature/hostile nature based on gender];]

3.That [name of defendant]’s conduct was unwelcome and also pervasive or severe; and

4.That [name of plaintiff] has suffered or will suffer [economic loss or disadvantage/personal injury/the violation of a statutory or constitutional right] as a result of [name of defendant]’s conduct.

New September 2003; Revised April 2008; Renumbered from CACI No. 3024 December 2012; Revised January 2019

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Directions for Use

Select the appropriate option for element 1 depending on the nature of the relationship between the parties. Select either or both options for element 2 depending on the defendant’s conduct. For a nonexclusive list of relationships covered, see Civil Code section 51.9(a)(1).

See also CACI No. 2524, “Severe or Pervasive” Explained.

Sources and Authority

Sexual Harassment in Defined Relationship. Civil Code section 51.9.

“[The] history of the [1999] amendments to Civil Code section 51.9 leaves no doubt of the Legislature’s intent to conform the requirements governing liability for sexual harassment in professional relationships outside the workplace to those of the federal law’s Title VII and California’s FEHA, both of which pertain to liability for sexual harassment in the workplace. Under both laws, an employee plaintiff who cannot prove a demand for sexual favors in return for a job benefit (that is, quid pro quo harassment) must show that the sexually harassing conduct was so pervasive or severe as to alter the conditions of employment. With respect to liability under section 51.9, which covers a wide variety of business relationships outside the workplace, the relevant inquiry is whether the alleged sexually harassing conduct was sufficiently pervasive or severe as to alter the conditions of the business relationship. This inquiry must necessarily take into account the nature and context of the particular business relationship.” (Hughes v. Pair (2009) 46 Cal.4th 1035, 1048 [95 Cal.Rptr.3d 636, 209 P.3d 963].)

Secondary Sources

8 Witkin, Summary of California Law (11th ed. 2017) Constitutional Law § 992
1 California Landlord-Tenant Practice, Ch. 3, Liability for Sexual Harassment (Cont.Ed.Bar 2d ed.) § 3.70A
1 Wrongful Employment Termination Practice, Ch. 3, When Plaintiff is Not Employee, Applicant, or Independent Contractor (Cont.Ed.Bar 2d ed.) § 3.12
11 California Forms of Pleading and Practice, Ch. 115, Civil Rights: Employment Discrimination, § 115.36; Ch. 116, Civil Rights: Discrimination in Business Establishments, §§ 116.35, 116.90; Ch. 117, Civil Rights: Housing Discrimination, § 117.32 (Matthew Bender)
1 Westley et al., Matthew Bender Practice Guide: California Landlord-Tenant Litigation, Ch. 2, Creation of Tenancy, 2.13 (Matthew Bender)